Leishmania donovani







Physiology and Structure


The promastigote stage (long, slender form of free flagellum) is present in the saliva of infected sandflies.

A human is infected once it is bitten by an infected fly whereby the promastigotes are injected into the skin and lose their flagella. Reproduction occurs in the amastigote stage. 

The destruction of tissues begin when the cells rupture. It will then multiply by binary fission and the cycle repeats itself.


Life cycle:






Clinical Syndromes


Victims would experience an offset of fever , diarrhea and anemia. During the early stages of the infection, victims may experience chills and sweating, similar to that of malaria. 

As the organisms multiply and invade the cells of the liver and spleen, these organs would start to swell, and the victim might experience weight loss and emaciation (substantial loss of fat of muscle tissue).

As the disease continues, the skin of the victim would be pigmented.

The disease is proved fatal is left untreated. Victims are given around 1 to 2 years to live.


Treatment, Prevention and Control


The control of the complex organism is best achieved through prompt diagnosis and treatment of effected individuals. Places with sandflies should be avoided. Insect repellent should be used and protective clothing, screens and bed netting should be used.